Chemistry CHSE 1st year Syllabus

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1st Year  Updated Syllabus 2021-22

CHEMISTRY

 

Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Atomic and molecular masses and equivalent mass of elements, acid, base, and salt,oxidants,reductants, and mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry, expression of concentration of solutions.

Unit II: Structure of Atom

Atomic number, isotopes, isobars, Rutherford’s model and its limitations, Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and fully filled orbitals.

Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements – atomic radii ionic radii, inert gas radii, Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency and oxidation state. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.

Unit IV : Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond; bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.

Unit V : States of Matter : Gases and Liquids

Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s number, ideal gas equation. Deviation from ideal behaviour liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea).

Unit VI : Chemical Thermodynamics

Concepts of System and surroundings and types of system, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions.

First law of thermodynamics – Internal energy and enthalpy. Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, neutralization, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution, Second law of Thermodynamics (brief introduction). Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibb’s energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium. Third law of thermodynamics (Statement only).

Unit VII : Equilibrium

Equlibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equlibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant (Kc, Kp and Kx and their relationship), factors affecting equilibrium, Le- Chatelier’s principle, ionic equilibrium, ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, concept of PH, hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solution, Henderson Equation, solubility, product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples) numerical problems.

Unit VIII : Redox Reaction

Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number.

Unit IX : Hydrogen

Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water and use of hydrogen as a fuel.

Unit X : s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)

Group 1 and Group 2 Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous, properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen and halogens, uses.

Unit XI : Some p- Block Elements

General Introduction to p- Block Elements

Group 13 Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of

properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group, Boron – physical and chemical properties.

Group 14 Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of

properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first elements. Carbon-catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of Silicon, Silicones, Zeolites and their uses.

Unit XII : Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Technique

General introduction, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond, inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

Unit XIII : Hydrocarbons

Classification of Hydrocarbons

Aliphatic Hydrocarbons : Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (ethane only), methods of preparation from unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkyl halides, carboxylic acids (Decarboxylation and Kolbes electrolytic method), physical properties, chemical reactions: including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion, controlled oxidation, isomerisation, aromatisation, with steam and pyrolysis.

Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, methods of preparation from alkynes, alkyl halides, vicinal dihalides, alcohols, physical properties, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides, sulphuric acid (Markownikoff’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, polymerisation and mechanism of electrophilic addition reaction.

Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), methods of preparation, from calcium carbide, vicinal dihalides, physical properties, chemical reactions : acidic character of alkynes, addition of hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides, water, and polymerisation.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons : Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, benzene : resonance, aromaticity, preparation of benzene from acetylene, phenol and aromatic acids, chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution, nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation, addition of hydrogen, addition of chlorine, combustion.

 

 

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